• Prevents oestrus (on heat), which can cause behavioural changes, vaginal discharge and unwanted visitors (male dogs).
  • Prevention of pseudo (false) pregnancies which can be traumatic for the dog and owner.
  • Reduce the risk of mammary tumours and eliminates the risk of pyometra (infection of uterus) which can occur in maturing dogs and are life threatening if not treated.
  • Prevents congenital abnormalities such as cleft palates/lips in puppies.
  • Unwanted puppies and/or problems during pregnancy and birth. These problems can include caesareans, mastitis, and eclampsia, that are often unexpected costs.



  • Prevention of behavioural problems associated with male hormones. This may include aggression tendencies, unwanted urine marking (for example inside your house), straying to find a bitch in season.
  • Prevention of prostatic disease associated with testosterone (male hormone) production. Cancer of male reproductive organs such as testicular cancer.
  • Reduces overpopulation and unwanted puppies.
  • Prevents congenital abnormalities such as cryptorchidism (retained testicles) in puppies.